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Reports and Analysis

Reports and Analysis |  |  Jan 25, 2024

Coking coal is entering long-term terminal decline with finance beginning to shift to enable it

As the global economy transforms to mitigate the climate crisis, decarbonising the A$2.6Trn global iron and steel industry, and the inevitable transition away from coking coal, is on the horizon with global finance beginning to enable this. Australia is the world’s largest exporter of both iron ore and metallurgical coal (met coal). We provide 57% of the world’s iron ore (A$124bn FY23 revenue) and 52% of global metallurgical coal (A$61bn FY23 revenue) and are therefore massively trade exposed as the world belatedly moves to limit global warming to 1.5°C and low carbon steel making becomes a reality. Read more

Reports and Analysis |  |  Jan 19, 2024

REPORT | Update The Lights will Stay on: NSW Electricity Plan 2024-2030

Our new report shows that the surge of utility scale firmed renewables in NSW, alongside CER, means there will be no electricity supply reliability gap if Australia’s biggest coal clunker – Eraring power station – is closed on-time as planned in 2025. Read more

Reports and Analysis |  |  Dec 15, 2023


The latest Climate Energy Finance update – read our comprehensive End of Year wrap, including the 2023 Report Card on the government’s policy progress for boosting Australia’s transition to becoming a renewable energy superpower. Read more

Reports and Analysis |  |  Dec 12, 2023


Australia must back the right horse at COP28 to keep 1.5°C alive –  and that means 3X renewables by 2030 […] Read more

Reports and Analysis |  |  Dec 7, 2023

Green Bonds for Low Carbon Buildings – do they contribute to real emissions reduction? A case study on the Woolworths Green Bond

CEF assesses the 2019 A$400m Woolworths Green Bond qualified under CBI’s Low Carbon Buildings criteria and find that it is difficult to credit CBI’s certification of these uses of proceeds as “contributing to climate mitigation” at all. Green bonds are designed to be a source of private capital mobilisation to achieve the massive uptick in clean energy investments required this decade. Given the volume of investment required to fund global decarbonisation, it is imperative that investors can identify credible emissions reduction opportunities to support. In our view, incorrectly conflating the notion that both assets and activities “contribute to” climate change mitigation creates a market distortion where the issue of real emissions reduction is obfuscated. Read more

Reports and Analysis |  |  Dec 5, 2023

MONTHLY CHINA ENERGY UPDATE | The new elephant in the room at COP28 – Developed countries need to put the money where their mouths are 

China entered COP28 with greater climate ambition than anyone else in the room. China showcases its robust commitment to renewable energy with 82% of October’s 23.8GW capacity additions being zero emissions, primarily solar. Despite not joining the global pledge to triple renewable energy by 2030, China is on track to peak CO2 emissions soon. COP28 saw the start of the loss and damage fund, the total pledged amount to address loss and damage reached $656m, with Australia investing zero capitals. This is far from enough as the loss and damage in developing countries is already greater than $400bn per year and expected to grow. Read more

Reports and Analysis |  |  Nov 30, 2023

China’s Leadership in Cleantech Manufacturing is the Necessary Pre-condition of COP28 Goal to Triple Global Renewable Energy by 2030

There is consensus from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and the International Energy Agency (IEA) that, in order to maintain the 1.5 degree pathway set out in the Paris Agreement, a tripling of renewables capacity to 11,000 GW by 2030 is required. According to the IEA, it is the single most important driver to keep 1.5C within reach. 90% of the renewable capacity growth would be from solar and wind, with wind capacity rising threefold from 2022 to 2030, and solar capacity fivefold. Put simply, this goal would be out of reach absent China’s massive green industrialisation of the last decade, the unprecedented acceleration of which underpins the financial viability of, and the market conditions to make possible, the global renewables revolution we need to see by 2030 if we are to avert the worsening climate crisis. Read more

Reports and Analysis |  |  Nov 29, 2023

REPORT | Decarbonising China & the World: Chinese Energy SOEs Supercharge Renewable Investment in Response to the 14th Five Year Plan

Our new report, led by CEF China analyst Xuyang Dong, finds that China’s massive energy-focussed State Owned Enterprises (SoEs) are shifting their huge capital expenditure (capex) in line with the central government’s renewable energy and emissions reduction targets, dramatically accelerating decarbonisation of the world’s second biggest economy. Supported by SoEs’ capital investments into renewables, China has already met its 2025 target requiring that 50% of installed capacity is renewable energy, and this target is likely to be exceeded by a significant margin. China’s domestic CO2 emissions could also fall in 2024 with its record increase in installation of zero-emissions energy sources and a recovery in hydropower, combined with enormous gains in electrification of transport and electric vehicle (EV) adoption, foreshadowing a structural plateauing of China’s emissions well before the formal target of a peak before 2030. This spells structural decline for Australian coal exports, driving home again our need to pivot our economy to value-adding critical minerals and onshoring clean manufacturing. Read more

Reports and Analysis |  |  Nov 28, 2023

FY2023 ANZ Climate Finance Report

ANZ began reporting under its massive $100bn target to 2030 moving $8,8bn in 2H23, $0.74bn was on-balance sheet lending towards climate solutions (i.e. 8% of the total funded and facilitated). ANZ’s ratio of RE to fossil fuel energy is 0.15: 1 (i.e. $15 in renewables for every $100 in fossils) which needs to accelerate to a minimum 1: 4 by 2030 to meet global climate goals. While governance around energy transactions is improving, ANZ needs to commit to no new funding or facilitation of capital that enables fossil fuel expansion. This commitment must extend to finance for customers who expect to rely on CCS as an emissions reduction strategy where the IEA this month found CCS to be completely “inconceivable” and unviable. Read more

Reports and Analysis |  |  Nov 27, 2023

China’s Leadership in Decarbonising Cleantech Manufacturing to Green the World

In September 2020, President Xi Jinping announced China’s national climate target to peak CO2-e emissions before 2030, and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060. Despite coal-fired generation capacity expanding in China into 2023, deployment of zero emission generation has significantly outpaced fossil fuels. We examine the aggressive scope 1-3 decarbonisation plans of four Chinese world leaders: CATL, LONGi, JinKO Solar and Trina Solar, far ahead of Australian corporate ‘leaders’ like BHP, Wesfarmers and BlueScope Steel. Read more

Reports and Analysis |  |  Nov 23, 2023


Leading clean energy and investor groups today applauded Federal Energy Minister Chris Bowen’s expansion of the Capacity Investment Scheme to 32GW, a huge stepchange in ambition that will accelerate Australia’s clean energy transition and ensure energy affordability and reliability. See the joint statement CEF released with the Clean Energy Investor Group, representing renewable energy investors with ~11GW of installed capacity across ~70 power stations and a portfolio value of ~$24bn; the Smart Energy Council, the independent body for the Australian smart energy industry with more than 950 members, Nexa Advisory and Solar Citizens. Read more


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